(1)

will be outlined in example 9, and will span (about) nine lines. Meanwhile, the formula and the title are not quite aligned

## Copious verification

In equation (1) above, is the length of the median from vertex , and is the length of side . Our first four examples confirm that the relation (1) should hold for all values of , except the unwanted ones:

#### Example

Consider with vertices at , , and . Find the length of the median from vertex , and verify that equation (1) is satisfied.

The slopes of sides are , respectively. They form a geometric progression in which .

Let’s first find the length of the median from vertex . The midpoint of side is at . Together with , the distance formula gives:

Thus, the length of the median from vertex is .

Next, the length of side is, by the distance formula:

Finally, we check that both and are related via equation (1):

*Expected*.

#### Example

Consider with vertices at , , and . Find the length of the median from vertex and verify that equation (1) is satisfied.

The slopes of sides are , respectively. They form a geometric progression in which . Special, special case.

The midpoint of side is at . Together with , we can find the length of the median from vertex :

With at and at :

*Surprised* — that .

If we put in equation (1) we see that

Surprise no longer applies. Subtract surprise from your dictionary.

If the slopes of the sides of a triangle form a geometric progression with common ration , then one median and the side opposite it are equal in length.

#### Example

Consider with vertices at , , and . Find the length of the median from vertex , and verify that equation (1) is satisfied.

The slopes of sides are , respectively. They form a geometric progression in which .

The midpoint of side is at . Together with , we find:

With at and at :

Put in equation (1):

*YESpected*.

#### Example

Consider with vertices at , , and . Find the length of the median from vertex , and verify that equation (1) is satisfied.

Our examples will be incomplete without this ugly, lovely triangle.

The midpoint of side is at . Together with :

With at and at , the length of is seen to be

Since the slopes of the sides of form a geometric progression with common ratio , let’s put in equation (1):

*Passed*.

## Obvious observations

Maybe you’ve wondered why we omitted absolute value in equation (1):

Wonder no more.

#### Example

If , PROVE that .

This is because , and , so the quotient is also greater than .

#### Example

If , PROVE that .

If , then we have and also . So the quotient .

#### Example

If , PROVE that

If , then . The fact that ensures that . So the numerator and denominator of have negative and positive signs, respectively. This makes the quotient negative.

However, if the common ratio of our three-term geometric progression happens to be sandwiched between and , we can simply use its reciprocal — which will then satisfy — in equation (1). This is the case of Example 5.

#### Example

If , PROVE that .

If , then . If in addition , then adding to both sides of the inequality gives . So the numerator and denominator of are negative and positive, respectively. This makes the quotient to be negative.

However, if the common ratio of our three-term geometric progression happens to be sandwiched between and , then we can simply use its reciprocal — which will then satisfy — in equation (1). This is the case of Example 6.

## Tedious derivation

As we derive equation (1) in what follows, are we really being serious by hinting that the procedure is tedious? Follow us to see that the answer is obvious.

PROVE that equation (1) holds for any triangle with slopes for the sides .

We’ll use two identities from our previous posts:

(2)

and a well-known identity, namely

which holds for any triangle. We’ll write the latter in the form

(3)

Eliminate from equations (2) and (3):

Isolate and continue the algebra:

Just as we said.

Find coordinates for the vertices of a in which the length of one median is *one-third* of the length of the opposite side.

We want a triangle in which , for example. Without recourse to equation (1), solving this problem maybe somewhat random.

So we’ll use what we’ve got. In (1), set

and solve for : .

It remains to find coordinates for the vertices of a triangle in which the slopes of the sides form a geometric progression with common ratio .

Use the most basic set of coordinates for the vertices:

That’s it. with vertices above is what we want:

## Takeaway

Our main equation (1)

is similar to what happens in a right triangle, where the length of the median to the hypotenuse is half of the length of the hypotenuse.

## Tasks

- Find coordinates for the vertices of in which one median has length equal to of the length of the opposite side.
- Find coordinates for the vertices of a
*right triangle*in which the side-slopes form a geometric progression with common ratio . - (Polynomial equations) Let be such that sides have slopes , respectively. PROVE that:
- , if ;
- , if ;
- , if .

- (Confusing notation) In any with vertices , , and , let the slopes of the medians be denoted by , and let the slopes of the sides be . PROVE that:
- ;
- .

(In our slipshod style, we sometimes use to denote the__length__of a median and sometimes the__slope__of the same median. Are we short of notations?)

- (Alternative derivation) Let be equilateral such that sides have slopes , respectively. PROVE that:
- ;
- .

(You can apply exercise 3 above, which uses a different approach compared to what we did in a previous post.)

- (Linear combinations) Let , , and be the vertices of in which sides have slopes . PROVE that , and .
- Let . PROVE that is also an integer if, and only if, .
- Let and consider with slopes for sides . PROVE that the length of the median from vertex is
*an integer multiple*of the length of side if, and only if, . - Find appropriate coordinates for the vertices of in which the side-slopes form a geometric progression and the length of the median from vertex is twice the length of side .
- Give an example of a triangle in which the length of the median from vertex is equal to the length of side , but the slopes of the sides
*do not*form a geometric progression. (This shows that the converse of example 2 is not true.)